The Legal, Ethical and Moral Problems Associated With Surrogacy

The legal, ethical and moral problems associated with surrogacy

A surrogate motherhood entails carrying and delivering a child (premature delivery is also included) under the contract concluded between a substitute mother and commissioning couples. Normally, a proxy is impregnated by implanting the zygote into her uterus. This zygote is formed in a laboratory using commissioning couple gametes or donor gametes. As the rate of infertility is rising every year, surrogacy is becoming more popular. Couples who are not in a financial status to invest much on this process are traveling to different countries where they can expect the same process at less cost. Surrogacy tourism is becoming more popular in Asian countries such as India. However, the increasing popularity of surrogacy has given rise to many legal, political, moral and ethical problems.

In this article, we are focusing on the rights of married infertile couples who made a contract with the surrogate mother to have a biological baby; ensuring the rights of a baby born to a substitute and the different factors included in a contract made with a substitute. The moral and ethical issues associated with the surrogacy are also considered. Doctors observe the problems associated with the surrogate motherhood in a sensible point of view, adhere to the up-to-date ART technologies and always encourage substitutes to move forward. However, the solicitors also don’t observe any particular ethical problems. According to the lawyers, every person has the rights to use their body and mind to commit action in accordance with his consciousness and will.

Commissioning couples seeking surrogacy to have a biological baby should face some legal problem in spite of considering this process as legal. As there is no law governing surrogacy in many states, the commissioning couples often face many obstacles while owning their biological baby. In some cases, when the substitute rejects to hand over the baby, the intended parents often face trouble. According to some state laws, the substitute has the right to keep the baby after delivery, as a result, the infertile married couples who gave their consent for an embryo transfer and made contract with the surrogate to carry their child, will be dishonored. Undoubtedly, at this circumstance either the deceived couples ask reimbursement or their baby. However, women who wish to become surrogate mother often face financial hardship; it will become hard for them dishonor the contract. Such haziness makes it impossible for the proxies to dishonor the laws.

Most of the state laws prefer to show a legal essence in a contract made between commissioning couple and surrogate mother. Some solicitors also argue that ensuring rights of children born to substitutes is also important. In some states, the experienced solicitors are working constantly to establish a strong surrogacy laws in order to give legal rights to the infertile married couples, surrogate mother who bear child upon agreement made with the intended parents and the rights of children born to the surrogate mothers. Once the law becomes strong and controversies related to the social and religious ethics will become normal, both parties can enjoy their journey without any complications and obstacles.

The Irish Human Rights Commission

The Good Friday Agreement 1998 conferred an obligation on both the British and Irish Governments to establish a Human Rights Commission in each jurisdiction, This took a couple of years to implement.

Although the UK Human Rights Act was passed in 1998 it did not come into effect until 2nd October 2000 and the ECHR was incorporated into Irish law on 1st January 2004 (ref European Convention on Human Rights Act 2003).

It is interesting to note that whilst Ireland was one of the first states to sign the ECHR in 1953 it was the last state to (partially) incorporate the provisions of the ECHR into domestic law.

The Good Friday Agreement also made provision for the establishment of a Joint Committee comprising members of the NI HR Commission and the HR Commission of the Republic of Ireland. This Committee meets alternately in Dublin and Belfast to discuss issues such as migration and racism.

The first Irish HR Commission served from July 2001 to June 2006. The Irish HR Commission was established by the Human Rights Commission Act 2000 (as amended by the 2001 Act). It has the following main roles:

1) Keeping under review the adequacy and effectiveness of law and practice in Ireland

2) Consulting with relevant national and international bodies

3) Making recommendations to Government

4) Promoting understanding and awareness of the importance of human rights

5) Offering expertise to the Irish courts

6) Conducting enquries into possible abuses in Ireland

7) Taking legal proceedings

8) Providing legal assistance to people taking legal proceedings

The HR Commission is made up of 15 people (at least 7 must be male and 7 female). The current Commission was appointed on 31st August 2006.

The HR Commission is only able to help people take proceedings in a limited range of circumstances. For example the complainant will need to prove that he has made reasonable efforts to get legal assistance elsewhere ie. Criminal or Civil Legal Aid. The Commission is not an adjudicator body – it cannot overturn court or tribunal decisions or award compensation. It’s main remit is to conduct and enquiry to find out whether existing law or practice meets human rights standards.

I read an interesting article recently by Gara LaMarche (Atlantic Philanthropies) entitled “Ireland’s Economic Problems – No Excuse to Send Human Rights into Recession”. The budget for the Irish HR Commission was cut by 24% in 1999. She says that the Irish HR Commission is a small and traditionally underfunded organisation, nonetheless praised consistently as a strong and independent voice for human rights by the United Nations, the Council of Europe and others but that recent budget cuts will seriously undermine its work.

Prepaid Legal Review: Can You Trust This Legal Services Company?

Do you know that you can have unlimited access to over 50 independent local law firms for just about any legal matter?

With Prepaid Legal Services, your family or small business can reach a local law firm to consult about the legal side of your business. You can talk to lawyers about reviewing legal documents, auto and home mortgages, insurance policy claims and many more. If you are subscribed to Prepaid Legal Services, you can get legal assistance by phone for an affordable monthly subscription.

Pre-paid Legal Services Then and Now

Pre-paid Legal Services was founded on August 8, 1972 by Harland C. Stonecipher with headquarters in Ada, Oklahoma. After over three decades, the company now has over 1.5 million active subscribers in the United States and in Canada; providing them with specialized legal services. The company is publicly traded in the New York Stock Exchange so in my mind, there is no doubt they are serious and there is no Prepaid Legal scam.

The company uses multilevel marketing to promote their products and services which can be purchased individually or can also be used by owners of small businesses through payroll deduction.

Prepaid Legal Scam Or Just Sour Distributors?

As with any other businesses, Prepaid Legal Services also had its share of bad publicity. If you look up the company online, you will come across many statements and reviews claiming that there is a Prepaid Legal scam and that many people were allegedly cheated of their hard-earned money. The fact is that the multilevel marketing company gives advance commissions to their distributors in the assumption that the customers will keep their membership for at least a year. However, some customers decide to stop the service after only a few months. Naturally, the commissions will have to be returned to the company. I believe this is where the confusion come from.

The distributors who had to return some commissions to the company are the one claiming that they have been scammed by Prepaid Legal when they are just the one responsible for not building the business properly…

Is Pre-paid Legal Services Currently a Good MLM Business?

Doing research for this Prepaid Legal review, I found some staggering numbers (don’t quote me on those though). As of 2009, the company’s overall profit decreased by 85% and the number of existing distributors decreased by 17.8%. If you look at trends in the multilevel marketing industry, their numbers usually go up in times of financial crisis as more people look for other income streams. Taking this into consideration, you may find Pre-paid Legal declining figures discouraging. With that said, it is important to note that the service they are providing is different from other multilevel marketing companies.

If you think about it, it’s just like any other industry with periods of highs and lows but it doesn’t mean there is a Prepaid Legal scam. And there is no doubt that Pre-paid Legal Services is a legitimate multilevel marketing company that provides invaluable service to those who need it. This is especially true since hiring an attorney for a tax audit or remedying an insurance claim is very expensive.

You need to understand that your success depends on how hard you work on establishing your network and growing your business. Unless you invest time and effort, you won’t be seeing any returns in your investment. You need to widen your reach and leverage all the opportunities available to you.

Going Beyond a Prepaid Legal Review: How Do You Succeed With Prepaid Legal?

If you are seriously considering joining Prepaid Legal and build a successful business, then you must sponsor and train as many distributors as you can so you team can generate more commissions and duplicate fast. Understanding sales and marketing are the basics requirements.

Do you have plan for that? Where can you find all these new distributors? Can you only rely on your warm market? If you are not sure about all these questions and you clearly understand that you are going to run out of friends and family members pretty fast, then you must learn the game.

The answer is pretty simple. Your goal is to find hundreds and hundreds of people and point them to your system, to your business presentation. This is simple but not easy! Most likely, the best way to that is to use an attraction marketing system that will teach you how and allow you to funnel all the traffic to capture pages and training. If the system and marketing funnel are set up properly, it is possible to generate dozens of leads, day after day, 24/7/365 and generate upfront cash-flow for your business while building your team!