Surrogacy: The Legal and Ethical Issues

The ever-raising pervasiveness of sterility world has lead to the advancement of Assisted Reproductive Technique (ART) treatments. Herein, the surrogacy comes as an alternative where the sterile couples can have the baby through this process. Surrogacy is an agreement where a substitute mother bears and delivers a baby for commissioning couple. Gestational surrogacy is the most common type of surrogacy arrangement which is also considered legal by many state laws. In gestational surrogacy, an embryo, which is fertilized by In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), is implanted into the uterus of a substitute mother who carries pregnancy for nine months and delivers a healthy baby. In traditional surrogacy, which is not popular and also considered illegal by many state laws, the substitute mother is impregnated by the sperms of commissioning father by Artificial Insemination (AI) therapy. In traditional surrogacy process, the substitute mother is genetically connected to the new-born. Therefore, this type of surrogacy is banned by most of the state laws.

At a glance, the surrogacy process seems to be very attractive alternative for poor women as they get good money by this process. The commissioning couples get their long desired biologically connected baby, but the real fact divulges the bitter truth. In most of countries like England, Germany, Sweden, Norway and Italy, surrogacy and surrogate agreements are considered illegal. These countries do not allow both types of surrogacy. Therefore, infertile couples from these countries move to India, United States of America, Ukraine and California where the surrogacy is considered legal. However, it is painful to know that none of these countries have proper legislation for surrogacy. Due to lack of proper legislation and transparency in the system, both commissioning couples and surrogate mother are exploited and profit is earned by the middlemen. There may be chances of getting involved in legal problems as none of these countries have regulations and transparency in laws governing surrogacy.

When the commissioning couples visit other countries to realize their dreams of parenthood by having a biological baby, they need to fight a long legal battle by crossing the language and cultural barrier to get their baby. Even if everything goes well with the commissioning couples, they need to stay at least two to three months to complete the required formalities after the birth of a new-born. While the intended couples face all these difficulties, surrogate mothers have another set of problems. The things with the surrogate mothers are even worse and unethical. If the substitutes are selected from rural background, the middlemen exploit them constantly. Sometimes, these ladies even don’t get complete compensation paid by the intended parents.

In conclusion, we can say that, if commissioning couple desire to have their own biological child, they need to contact the best agency where they will be guided legally and ethically, where the agencies conduct psychological screening and legal counselling for surrogate mothers (mandatory in the US). If you succeed in finding the best agency, then you can realize your dreams of parenthood without any legal and ethical difficulties.

Prepaid Legal Review – A Fair and Unbiased PPL Review

Prepaid Legal Review – What are they selling?

Prepaid Legal offers several legal plans they have a family plan, a business plan, and even an identity theft shield. The most important things to recognize in regards to the product is how you and your eventual downline will market the product. PPL offers a quality marketable product, however it can be easily misinterpreted because of the name “Prepaid”. While they offer several free services such as a will, limited contract review, phone consultations, and more. The legal plan is not insurance and customers are not prepaying for unlimited legal representation. Having a Pre Paid Legal plan is a proactive approach to legal protection and offers a discount when certain representation is needed. The product component of this review is simply to give you an overview of what to consider prior to becoming a customer or joining as a distributor. For the exact details on the product specifics contact an able Pre-Paid Legal representative.

Prepaid Legal Review – The Company and Leadership

Pre-Paid Legal was founded by Harland Stonecipher and has been operating since 1972. In January of 2011 the company has agree to go from being a publicly traded company to a private one. This deal is expected to be complete by July of 2011. While the company once leveraged the fact that they were a publicly traded company, being private also has many benefits to the company and distributors. PPL with out questions has a strong foundation of corporate and field leaders that have driven this company to a half a billion dollar business.

Prepaid Legal Review – The Compensation, Show Me the Money!

The most exciting feature to Pre-Paid Legal’s compensation plan is next day pay. PPL offers the ability to receive commission by direct deposit every 24 hours. Overall PPL offers a lucrative compensation plan that has substantial upfront bonuses based upon the contract term chosen when the service is sold. This term also has in impacts when residual income begins. An important component of Prepaid Legal’s compensation plan is that residual income is not paid out immediately, however residual income on products sales is a component of the compensation plan. This compensation review would not be complete without mentioning another important element of the PPL compensation plan the “chargeback”. Because the company offers an upfront commission a portion of that upfront commission may be recovered by the company if the service is cancelled within a specific time period. All that being said the company offers a fair and marketable compensation plan that has proven to pay distributors that are serious about building their Prepaid Legal business.

What Does It Take To Succeed in PPL?

Prepaid Legal has proven to be a solid company, with great corporate and field leaders. They have a rich culture and proven track record within the Network Marketing Industry. Yet the facts are clear, even though PPL has great leaders, a lucrative compensation plan, and a marketable product none of that has any bearing on your success. Prepaid Legal is first and foremost a Network Marketing company; therefore your success is completely based on your ability to sponsor quality distributors into your business. Therefore you must be able to connect with and close a high number of people into your Prepaid Legal business.

Since your success hinges entirely on your ability to market and generate quality leads. I highly recommend anyone interested in creating a substantial income in Prepaid Legal Services implement a proven Attraction Marketing System. This system must allow you to brand yourself as a leader, teach and allow you to generate leads, as well as help you generate income from the individuals interested in an opportunity but don’t want to join you’re Prepaid Legal business or use it as a tool. If you tie this online Attraction Marketing System and branding with a solid strategy Prepaid Legal could be a life changing opportunity.

Website Legal Compliance – FTC Accelerates Crackdown On Fake News Sites

We’ve all seen headlines in search results like this one – “XYZ Exposed: Miracle Diet or Scam”. And perhaps we actually believed there was objective reporting or unbiased commentary behind the headline. But after reading the web page, it was clear that the headline was just a clever way to catch your attention and lure you to a sales page with an aggressive sales pitch.

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has seen these headlines too, and the FTC doesn’t think they’re clever at all. In fact, the FTC believes they constitute deceptive and unfair trade practices, as indicated by the FTC’s accelerated crackdown on affiliates of a popular diet drink with aggressive weight loss claims.

Modus Operandi

The modus operandi of these sites was to start with attention grabbing headlines such as the one listed above and these additional ones – “News 6 News Alerts,” “Health News Health Alerts,” or “Health 5 Beat Health News.”

The sites presented what appeared to be a skeptical commentator who raises the question of whether the diet drink is really effective. The commentator appeared to be objective; however, after a few paragraphs the commentator would conclude that use of the diet drink would result in a 25-pound weight loss in 4 weeks – all this without changing diet or exercise according to the FTC.

The prices for the supplement ranged between $70 and $100.

The FTC’s Claims

When the FTC originally initiated law suits against these sites, Charles Harwood, Deputy Director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection stated: “We are alleging that nearly everything about these Web sites is false and deceptive”. In addition, the FTC pointed out that the defendants aggressively promoted the deceptive ads by spending millions of dollars for placement on high volume websites resulting in millions of views by consumers and substantial sales.

Specifically, the FTC contended that the offending sites –

* failed to disclose their material relationships involving the payment of affiliate commissions with the merchants of the products;

* failed to produce independent tests to support the claims made prior to public dissemination;

* included a section of “consumer comments” that were completely fabricated;

* used infringing logos of reputable media outlets such as ABC, Fox News, CNN and Consumer Reports to give the false impression of credibility; and

* misappropriated the image of a French reporter for use on the sites.

The Settlements

The cases brought by the FTC were against six affiliates of the merchant that manufactured and supplied the weight loss supplement.

In the settlements, the defendants agreed that they will permanently cease their allegedly deceptive practice of using fake news websites. In addition, the settlements require that the defendants cease making deceptive claims about their other products, including work-at-home schemes and penny auctions which most of them promoted.

The big hammer in the settlements included fines in an aggregate amount which represented the affiliate commissions the defendants received through their fake news sites.

These settlement results clearly indicate that the FTC aggressively pursued every dollar they could under the circumstances (the final amounts left most of them with few real assets, if any):

* one defendant’s $2.5 million judgment was suspended when he pays $280,000 and records a $39,500 lien on his home;

* another defendant’s fine of $204,000 was suspended pending the payment of $13,000 plus the proceeds from the sale of a BMW automobile, and

* still another defendant was suspended pending the payment of almost $80,000 over a 3 year period.


The take-aways from these cases include –

* fake news sites are virtually guaranteed to get you sued by the FTC,

* ditto for fake testimonials or user comments,

* diet supplements of any kind are high on the FTC’s radar screen for regulatory scrutiny,

* the FTC is serious about enforcing its guidelines that affiliates are required to conspicuously disclose the fact that they are paid commissions for endorsements, and

* consistent with the FTC’s long-standing policy, advertising claims should be substantiated prior to public dissemination.

The FTC continues to make it absolutely clear that the days of the “Wild, Wild West” on the Internet, when it was open season on deceptive marketing practices, is clearly over for good.

This article is provided for educational and informative purposes only. This information does not constitute legal advice, and should not be construed as such.